1. individuals, characters, folks 替换people,persons.
2. positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, outstanding, superior 替换good.
3. dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill 替换bad（如果bad做表语，可以有be less impressive替换。）
4. an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of, a host of, if not most 替换many.
5. a slice of, quiet a few 替换some.
6. harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 替换think。
7. affair, business, matter 替换thing.
8. shared 替换common.
9. reap huge fruits 替换get many benefits.
10. for my part ,from my own perspective 替换in my opinion.
11. Increasing(ly), growing 替换more and more（注意没有growingly这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用increasing/growing修饰形容词，副词用increasingly.）
12. little if anything或little or nothing 替换hardly.
13. beneficial, rewarding 替换helpful.
14. shopper, client, consumer, purchaser 替换customer.
15. overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely 替换very.
16. hardly necessary, hardly inevitable…替换unnecessary, avoidable.
17. indispensable 替换necessary.
18. sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 替换sb take interest in / sb. be interested in.
19. capture one s attention 替换attract one s attention.
20. facet, demension, sphere 替换aspet.
21. be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 替换indicate,suggest, fear.
22. give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替换cause.
23. There are several reasons behind sth 替换…reasons for sth.
24. desire 替换want.
25. pour attention into 替换pay attention to.
26. bear in mind that 替换remember.
27. enjoy, possess 替换have（注意process是过程的意思）。
28. interaction 替换communication.
29. frown on sth 替换be against , disagree with sth.
30. as an example 替换for example, for instance.
31. next to / virtually impossible 替换nearly / almost impossible.
32. regarding / concerning 替换about.
33. crucial /paramount 替换important.
34. 第一（in the first place/the first and foremost）；第二（there is one more point, I should touch on, that…）；第三（the last but not the least）.
35. assiduous 替换hard-working.
36. arduous 替换difficult.
37. underdeveloped / financially-challenged 替换poor（因为poor通常含有贬义）.
38. demonstrate / manifest 替换show.
39. invariably 替换always.
40. perilous / hazardous替换dangerous.
41. formidable 替换difficult.
42. quintessential 替换typical（举例时常用，例如：a quintessential example should be cited that=for example; for instance）.
43. distinguished 替换famous.
44. feasible 替换possible.
45. consequently, accordingly替换so.
46. 通常，由数据推断出一定的结论，用Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that……
Much of the researchin sexual selection in the last two decadeshas examinedhow a female’s preference that does not influence her immediate reproductive success can still evolve if it is genetically correlated with another character under direct selection.(不要每次写到研究时总用study，可以用些其它的词汇，比如examine，work。)
Two hypothesesfor female preference evolution—runaway sexual selection and good genes selection—state thatpreferences evolve indirectly because they are genetically correlated with male traits that are under direct selection; that is, the preferences themselves are not under direct selection.(在引述别人的观点时，如果不能完全同意，使用state 比show更加中立些。)
Studies of receiver biases suggestthat such analogies might not be broadly applicable.(suggest,又一种较为客观的引述观点的表达方法。)
Burley argued thatthe preference for red beaks is adaptive because it indicates male health, and this preference is then transferred to leg-band color.(argue,引用别人观点的又一表述。)
According tothe anti-monotony hypothesis, habituation plays an important role in the evolution of complex vocalizations in songbirds: Increased song complexity reduces habituation of neighboring males and courting females.(根据…)
Previous studies ofacoustic and bioluminescent interactionshad emphasizedpotential advantages to group-signaling organization, such as minimizing predation, preserving species-specific signal characters, or increasing the attractiveness of the group.(带有小小的强调)
48.常见的连接词有，However, also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further, although, unlike, in contrast, Similarly, Unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results, In order to, despite, For example, Compared with, other results, thus, therefore……用好连接词能使文章层次清楚，意思明确。比如，叙述有时间顺序的事件或文献，最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下来可用Then BB further demonstrated that. 再接下来，可用Afterwards, CC……如果还有，可用More recent studies by DD……
1、 framework, technique替代method, approach, methodology
2、 compose of 替代 consist of, made up of
3、 处理：deal with, address, tackle, solve, process, overcome
4、superiority 替代 advantage
5、present, propose, put forward, develop, design
7、utilize, adopt, employ, use, conduct, implement
8、 表述“实验结果表明…”时除了用show, indicate, 也可以使用suggest, reveal, prove
9、 critical, pivotal替代 key
10、essential, important, significant
11、 roughly equal 几乎相等
12、 operate, work, serve
13、 severely, extremely, dramatically 严重的
14、 correspondingly 连词，相应地
15、 lead to, cause, result in
16、 enhance, boost替代improve, increase
19、 scarce, insufficient, inadequate, deficient
20、 inherit 继承，如继承了某某方法的优点或缺点
21、 alleviate, mitigate 减轻，缓解；aggravate 加剧
22、 shortcomings, problems, deficiency, limitation
23、 verify, validate, prove
25、 instances, samples, points, data
26、 novel, new
27、generate, produce, achieve
28、 obtain, get
29、 compute, calculate
30、 illustrate, describe; 描述图表时illustrate, depict, show, indicate均可用
31、research, study, investigation
32、additionally, in addition 替代 also, besides
33、 it is rarely reported 很少有人研究
35、 解释公式时可以用 indicate, denote, represent
36、 construct, develop, design, establish
37、in the range of 在…范围内
38、 precision, accuracy
39、remaining 代替 other
40、 a variety of 替代 many
moreover, in addition, furthermore, besides, likewise, also, then, additionally
not, yet, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, meanwhile, on the other hand, on the contrary, conversely, paradoxically, by contrast, in spite of，rather than, instead of, unfortunately
in other words, in fact, as a matter of fact, that is, namely, in simpler terms
Likewise, Similarly, In parallel to, while, whereas,
because, because of, as, since, owing to, due to, thanks to, for this reason
therefore, as a result, then, consequently, thus, hence, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, as consequence
for example, for instance, as such, such as, take …for example, to illustrate, to name a few
overall, eventually, consequently, in summary,in a word, as a result, together, collectively, thus, hence, consequently, on the whole, in conclusion, to sum up, in brief, to conclude, to summarize, in short, briefly
surprisingly, interestingly, intriguingly, strikingly, unexpectedly, clearly, obviously, apparently, in fact, indeed, actually, as a matter of fact, undoubtedly, notably, specifically, particularly, especially
firstly, … secondly, … finally …; first, … then … etc.
although, after all, in spite of…, despite, even if, even though, though, admittedly,given that
presumably, probably, perhaps
virtually/largely unknown, elusive, unclear, much less explored, surprisingly limited, less understood, unsolved, scarcely understood
reliability and validity, robust and fundamental, efficiency and specificity, cost-effectiveness(price), the simplicity of the protocols, the amount of labor required, equipment requirement，necessary or sufficient
clearly/obviously demonstrate, reveal, illustrate, prove, show, report, implicate, confirm, describe
examine, perform, carry out, observe, compare, investigate, indicate, show, manipulate, test, establish, identify, detect, stimulate, analyse, assess, suggest, propose, speculate, determine, find, apply, purify, construct a model, devised a protocol, calculate, categorize, conduct, imply, measure,explore, reason, observe, summarize, conduct, reveal, measure, estimate, employ, support,resolve
plays a central/ pivotal/ vitalkey/essentialrole
a powerful regulator/ a key molecular determinant, a well-accepted model
influence, affect, rescue, reverse, lead to, contribute to, attribute to, ascribe to, drop, reduce, increasing, attenuate, ameliorate, improve,mount,accumulate
recently, most recently, at the same time/period, since then, for several decades
pushing the boundariesrecent/enormous advance, progress, knowledge, historic, perspectives, new/novel insights, seminal discovery, an emerging theme, major/important findings, a better understanding