administer:to manage and organize the affairs of a company, an organization, a country, etc.; to give drugs, medicine, etc. to sb
The dose wasadministeredto the child intravenously.
The Internet opens up new ways ofadministratingthe tax system.
averse:strongly disliking; opposed
This drug is known to haveadverseside effects.
He wasaverseto any change.
advise:(verb) to recommend
The ministeradvisedhim to leave as soon as possible.
Take myadviceand stay away from him!
affect:(verb) to influence, to have an impact on
effect:(noun) a result, a consequence; (verb) to bring about, to cause
Nicotine adverselyaffectsthe functioning of the heart and arteries.
The crisis had a negativeeffecton trade.
alternate:happening or following one after the other regularly
alternative:available as another possibility
Throughout the night, peoplealternatebetween passive and active sleep.
New ways to treat arthritis may provide analternativeto painkillers.
all together:all in one place; all at once
altogether:completely; on the whole
Can you put your booksall togetherin this box?
The choice of language isaltogetherdifferent.
artefact:artificial effect, often due to experimental error
artifact:object produced or shaped by human craft
But this does not mean China's economic miracle has been just a statisticalartefact.
They also repair broken religiousartifacts.
bear:(verb) to carry; to put up with
The hills above the valley arebarerock.
The housesbearthe marks of bullet holes.
beside:at the side of, next to
On the tablebesidean empty plate was a pile of books.
We have lots of things in commonbesidesmusic.
She wasbornin the fifties.
It must bebornein mind that the victory is hard-won.
site:a place where something is located
The officials didn’tciteparticular reports.
Thesiteis off-limits to the general public.
classic:an excellent or defining version of something
classical:descriptions of things like the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome or the orchestral music of the 18thand 19thcenturies
The book is now recognized as aclassic.
He playsclassicalmusic, as well as pop and jazz.
complement:to add to so as to improve; an improving addition
compliment:to praise or express approval; (noun) an admiring remark
The team needs players whocomplementeach other.
You can do no harm by paying a womancompliments.
compose:to combine to form a whole
comprise:to have sb/sth as parts or members (一些保守派学者提倡禁用be comprised of，尽管某些词典承认这种用法)
Protein moleculescomposeall the complex working parts of living cells.
The collectioncomprises327 paintings.
continual:ongoing but with pause or interruption, starting and stopping
Life was acontinualstruggle for them.
Continuousexposure to sound above 80 decibels could be harmful.
discreet:careful not to attract attention
discrete:separate and distinct
You ought to make a fewdiscreetenquiries before you sign anything.
Atoms are made up ofdiscreteparticles.
ensure:to make certain that something will happen
insure:to provide compensation for death or loss
The bookensuredhis success.
The painting isinsuredfor $1 million.
invoke:to mention a person, a theory, an example, etc. to support your opinions or ideas
The musicevokedmemories of her youth.
Sheinvokedseveral eminent scholars to back up her argument.
historic:important in history
historical:connected with the past
The area is of specialhistoricinterest.
You must place these events in theirhistoricalcontext.
more important:(adjective phrase) what is more important
more importantly:(adverbial phrase) in a more important manner
More important, the cancer spread to the liver.
In the assessment, the leak was viewedmore importantlythan it should have been.
nauseated:to feel sick to one’s stomach
nauseous:causing one to become sick
The fumes caused us to becomenauseated.
principal:most important; the head of a school
principle:a fundamental rule or belief
Theprincipalreason for this omission is lack of time.
There are three fundamentalprinciplesof teamwork.
“Love is asmokeraised with thefumeof sighs;
Beingpurged, a firesparklingin lovers’ eyes;
Being vex’d, a seanourish’dwith lovers’ tears;
What is it else? A madness mostdiscreet;
Achoking galland apreservingsweet.”
Cigarettesmokecontains hundreds of different chemicals.
Trafficfumesare a major source of air pollution.
Many medicines are available topurgethe intestines.
Poorlynourishedchildren will fail to grow.
Companies try to bediscreetabout their projects to prevent competitors from gaining an advantage.
Pumps in nuclear reactors often have achoketo regulate the water supply.
Gallis a body fluid which is required to digest fat in the human intestine.
Very low temperaturespreservedthe body of the Tyrolean ice-man.
Aliotta M. (2019). Mastering Academic Writing in the Sciences: A Step by Step Guide. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Alley M. (2018). The Craft of Scientific Writing. 4thed. New York: Springer.
Dreyer B. (2019). Dreyer’s English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style. New York: Random House.