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英文Sci论文写作技巧

学术资讯 6个月前 站长
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英文Sci论文写作技巧

应大家的要求,这几周以来不断更新有关sci论文写作的一些技巧方式,我并不是大牛,但也算是在外文期刊上发了几篇文章。以前写的文章老是refuse,现在大多都是revised,摸索写文章的路真的很艰辛。

我觉得写文章之前要先有思路,你怎么去写怎么写的和别人不同,有新意。我觉得论文写很简单,主要是能够发表出去,我也说不透,只是参透了一二,和大家分享,望大家不要耻笑。
下面我简单讲下我的思路。有相同或不同见解的留下言,共同交流,一起进步:

文章的第一步要有,也就是说首先把图做的漂漂亮亮的,不管是SEM,TEM,Uv-vis,FTIR,还是效果图。图片放到你的文章里就是你的思路,图片放好了,你的思路就出来了,这是就关键的过程,放图的过程中你要考你怎么写,你的文章新的地方在哪?;图做好了也放好了,就是写文章了,写文章也很快了,因为思路有了你的文章也构思好了。

文章主题部分,下面我引用了一些总结的写作经验,我觉得很有用。大家认真看看,在此先祝福大家论文高中,硕果累累不减当年勇时:


1. 前言部分

1.1 如何指出当前研究的不足以及有目的地引导出自己的研究的重要性

通常在叙述了前人成果之后,用However来引导不足,比如
However, little information...
little attention has been devoted to…
little work...
little data / little research
or few studies / investigations / few attempts have been don on…
or none of these studies
has (have) been less
done on ... / focused on / attempted to
conducted / investigated / studied
(with respect to)
OR To the author's knowledge... There is little information available in literature about...
Until recently, there is some lack of knowledge about...
Previous research (studies, records) has (have)
failed to consider
ignored
misinterpreted
neglected to
overestimated, underestimated
misleaded

thus, these previous results are
inconclusive / misleading…
unsatisfactory / questionable /controversial..

Uncertainties (discrepancies) still exist ...

一定要注意绝对不能全面否定前人的成果,即使在你看来前人的结论完全不对。这是前人工作最起码的尊重,英文叫做给别人的工作credits.
所以文章不要出现非常negative的评价,比如Their results are wrong, very questionable, have no commonsense, etc.
可以婉转地提出:
Their studies may be more reasonable if they had considered this situation.
Their results could be better convinced if they ...
Or Their conclusion may remain some uncertainties.

1.2.之后引导出一种新方法,或者一种新方向。

如果研究的方法以及方向和前人一样,可以通过下面的方式强调自己工作的作用:
However, data is still scarce
rare
less accurate
there is still dearth of

We need to / aim to / have to
provide more documents / data / records / studies
increase the dataset
Further studies are still necessary... / essential...

为了强调自己研究的重要性,一般还要在However之前介绍自己研究问题的反方面,另一方面等等, 比如:
1)时间问题
如果你研究的问题时间上比较新,你就可以大量提及对时间较老的问题的研究及重要性,然后说(However),对时间尺度比较新的问题研究不足
2)物性及研究手段问题
如果你要应用一种新手段或者研究方向,你可以提出当前比较流行的方法以及物质性质,然后说对你所研究的方向和方法,研究甚少。
3)研究区域问题
首先总结相邻区域或者其它区域的研究,然后强调这一区域研究不足
4)不确定性
虽然前人对这一问题研究很多,但是目前有两种或者更多种的观点,这种uncertanties, ambiguities,值得进一步澄清
5)提出自己的假设来验证
如果自己的研究完全是新的,没有前人的工作进行对比,在这种情况下,你可以自信地说,根据提出的过程,存在这种可能的结果,本文就是要证实这种结果。
We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the ...
It is hoped that the question will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach).

1.3. 如何提出自己的观点

We aim to…
This paper reports on…
provides results..
extends the method…
focus on..
The purpose of this paper is to..
Furthermore, Moreover, In addition,, we will also discuss...

1.4. 圈定自己的研究范围

前言的另外一个作用就是告诉读者包括(reviewer)你的文章主要研究内容。如果处理不好,reviewer会提出严厉的建议,比如你没有考虑某种可能性,某种研究手段等等。为了减少这种争论,在前言的结尾你就要明确提出本文研究的范围:
1)时间尺度问题
如果你的问题涉及比较长的时序,你可以明确地提出本文只关心这一时间范围的问题。
We preliminarily focus on the older (younger)...
或者有两种时间尺度的问题 (long-term and short term),你可以说两者都重要,但是本文只涉及其中一种
2) 研究区域的问题
和时间问题一样,明确提出你只关心这一地区

1.5. 最后的原场

在前言的最后,还可以总结性地提出,这一研究对其它研究的帮助。
或者说,further studies on ... will be summarized in our next study (or elsewhere)
总之,其目的就是让读者把思路集中到你要讨论的问题上来。减少争论(arguments).

2. 怎样提出观点

在提出自己的观点时,采取什么样的策略很重要。不合适的句子通常会遭到reviewer的置疑。

1)如果观点不是这篇文章最新提出的,通常要用
We confirm that...

2)对于自己很自信的观点,可用
We believe that...

3)在更通常的情况下,由数据推断出一定的结论,
用, Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that...

4) 在及其特别的情况才可以用We put forward (discover, observe..) .. "for the first time".
来强调自己的创新。

5) 如果自己对所提出的观点不完全肯定,可用
We tentatively put forward (interpret this to..)

Or The results may be due to (caused by)/ attributed to / resulted from..
Or It seems that .. can account for (interpret) this..

要注意这些结构要合理搭配。如果通篇是类型1)和5),那这篇文章的意义就大打折扣。如果全是2),肯定会遭到置疑。所以要仔细分析自己成果的创新性以及可信度。

3. 连接词与逻辑

写英文论文最常见的一个毛病就是文章的逻辑不清楚。解决的方法有:
1)句子上下要有连贯,不能让句子之间独立
常见的连接词语有,
also, in addition, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further,
However, although, unlike, in contrast, Unfortunately,
Similarly, alternatively, parallel results, Compared with other results,
In order to, despite, For example
consequently, thus, therefore...
用好这些连接词,能够使观点表达得有层次,更加明确。

比如,如果叙述有时间顺序的事件或者文献,
最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.
接下来,可用Then BB further demonstrated that..
再接下来,可用Afterwards, CC..
如果还有,可用More recent studies by DD..

如果叙述两种观点,要把它们截然分开
AA put forward that........ In contrast, BB believe
or Unlike AA, BB suggest…
or On the contrary (表明前面的观点错误,如果只是表明两种对立的观点,用in contrast), BB..
如果两种观点相近,可用
AA suggest ….. Similarly ( alternatively), BB..
Or Also, BB…
or BB also does …

表示因果或者前后关系,可用 Consequently, therefore, as a result,
表明递进关系,可用furthermore, further, moreover, in addition,

当写完一段英文,最好首先检查一下是否较好地应用了这些连接词。

2) 段落的整体逻辑
经常我们要叙述一个问题的几个方面。这种情况下,一定要注意逻辑结构。

首先第一段要明确告诉读者你要讨论几个部份
...Therefore, there are three aspects of this problem have to be addressed.
The first question involves...
The second problem relates to …
The third aspect deals with...
上面的例子可以清晰地把观点逐层叙述。

Or, 可以直接用First, Second, Third..... Finally,..

当然,Furthermore, in addition等可以用来补充说明。

4. 正文部份的整体结构

小标题是比较好的方法把要讨论的问题分为几个片段。
一般第一个片段指出文章最为重要的数据与结论。补充说明的部份可以放在最后一个片段。

一定要明白文章的读者会分为多个档次。文章除了本专业的专业人士读懂以外,一定要想办法能让更多的外专业人读懂。所以可以把讨论部份分为两部份,一部份提出观点,另一部份详细介绍过程以及论述的依据。这样专业外的人士可以了解文章的主要观点,比较专业的讨论他可以把它当成黑箱子,而这一部份本专业人士可以进一步研究。

5. 关于abbreviation

如果文章用了很多的Abbreviation, 两种方法加以解决
1) 在文章最好加上个Appendix,把所有Abbreviation列表
2) 在不同的页面上,不时地给出Abbreviation的含义,用来提醒读者。
总之,写文章的目的是要让读者读懂,读得清晰,并且采取各种措施方便于读者。

5. Discussion 部分

5. 1时态
(a) 指出结果在哪些图表中列出,常用一般现在时。如:Figure 2 shows the variation in the temperature of the samples over time.
(b) 叙述或总结研究结果的内容为关于过去的事实,所以通常采用过去时。如:After flights of less than two hours, 11% of the army pilots and 33% of the civilian pilots reported back pain.
(c) 对研究结果进行说明或由其得出一般性推论时,多用现在时。如:The higher incidence of back pain in civilian pilots may be due to their greater accumulated flying time.
(d) 不同结果之间或实验数据与理论模型之间进行比较时,多采一般现在时(这种比较关系多为不受时间影响的逻辑上的事实)。如:These results agree well with the findings of Smith, et al.

6. 讨论部份包括什么内容?

6.1 主要内容

1) 主要数据特征的总结
2) 主要结论以及与前人观点的对比
3) 本文的不足
第三点,在一般作者看来不可取。事实上给出文章的不足恰恰是保护自己文章的重要手段。如果刻意隐藏文章的漏洞,觉得别人看不出来,是非常不明智的。

所谓不足,包括以下内容:
a) 研究的问题有点片面
讨论时一定要说,
It should be noted that this study has examined only…
We concentrate (focus) on only...
We have to point out that we do not…
Some limitations of this study are...

b) 结论有些不足
The results do not imply…
The results can not be used to determine…
be taken as evidence of…
Unfortunately, we can not determine this from this data…
Our results are lack of ...

但是,在指出这些不足之后,随后一定要再一次加强本文的重要性以及可能采取的手段来解决这些不足,为别人或者自己的下一步研究打下浮笔。
Notwithstanding its limitation, this study does suggest…
However, these problems could be solved if we consider…
Despite its preliminary character, this study can clearly indicate…

用中文来说,这一部份是左右逢源。把审稿人想到的问题提前给一个交代,同时表明你已经在思考这些问题,但是由于文章长度,试验进度或者试验手段的制约,暂时不能回答这些问题。但是,这些通过你的一些建议,这些问题在将来的研究中游可能实现。

P.S.
坚信观点的真实性:prove, demonstrate
不确定性: show,indicate,found
表示推测: imply,suggest

6.2 关于结论中的时态:

(1) 回顾研究目的时,通常使用过去时。如:In this study, the effects of two different learning methods were investigated.
(2) 如果所概述结果的有效性只是针对本次特定的研究,需用过去时;如果具有普遍的意义,则用现在时。如: In the first series of trials, the experimental values were all lower than the theoretical predictions. The experimental and theoretical values for the yields agree well.
(3) 阐述由结果得出的推论时,通常使用现在时。如:The data reported here suggest (These findings support the hypothesis, Our data provide evidence) that the reaction rate may be determined by the amount of oxygen available.

Some points of style
(摘自一个老外的Writing a Paper, 第一点和最后一点是我们经常用错的)

  • Do not use nouns as adjectives (不要把名词当作形容词用)
    Not: ATP formation; reaction product
    But: Formation of ATP; product of the reaction
  • The word “this” must always be followed by a noun, so that its reference is explicit.
    (This 后面必须跟一个名词)
    Not: This is a fast reaction; This leads us to conclude..,
    But: This reaction is fast; This observation leads us to conclude…
  • Describe experimental results in the past tense. (试验结果用过去时)
    Not: Addition of water gives product.
    But: Addition of water gave product.
  • Use the active voice whenever possible. (尽可能使用主动语态)
    Not: It was observed that the solution turned red.
    But: The solution turned red.
    OR We observed that the solution turned red.
  • Complete all comparisons. (使用完整的比较形式 A is higher than B)
    Not: The yield was higher using bromine.
    But: The yield was higher using bromine than chlorine.

近期整理了 一些论文的写作句式, 相信认真看完的人多少会有些收获!
Beginning
In this paper, we focus on the need for
This paper proceeds as follow.

  • The structure of the paper is as follows.
  • In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts
  • To begin with we will provide a brief background on the

Introduction

  • This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.
  • Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.
  • In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered.

Review

  • This review is followed by an introduction.
  • A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.
  • In the next section a brief view of the …. is given.
  • In the next section, a short review of … is given with special regard to …
  • Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.
  • Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods.

Body

  • Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.
  • Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.
  • Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx
  • Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.
  • Section 2 explains how flexibility which often … can be expressed in terms of fuzzy timewindow
  • Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the …
  • Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ..and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.
  • Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.
  • Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.
  • Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.
  • Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules
  • The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.
  • Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.
  • Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.
  • Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.
  • Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.
  • Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.
  • Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.
  • Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..
  • Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.
  • Section 6 illustrate the model with an example.
  • Various ways of fuzzification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.
  • In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model
    of human DM system
  • In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a … scheme must satisfy.
  • In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is orderdense.
  • In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study
    currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.
  • In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments…

This Section

  • In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is
    designed are described.
  • We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which
    are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.

Justification

  • We choose the so called xx in our experiment because it has received wide acceptance and can
  • Prolog was chosen because it offers a well known and flexible environment in which fuzzy reasoning may be easily implemented.
  • The rationale behind this is that it can be much easier for an estimator to rate a cost as high than to attempt to place a dollar value on the estimate.
  • This strategy has been widely used in fuzzy control applications since it is natural and easy to implement.
  • A function definition expresses the membership function of a fuzzy set in a functional form, typically a bellshaped function, etc. Such functions are used in FLC because they lead themselves to manipulation through the use of fuzzy arithmetic.
  • It should be noted that in our daily life most of the information on which our decisions are based is linguistic rather than numerical in nature. Seen in this perspective, fuzzy control rules provide a natural framework for the characterization of human behavior and decisions analysis.
  • Many experts have found that fuzzy control rules provide a convenient way to express their domain knowledge. This explains why most FLCs are based on the knowledge and experience which are expressed in the language of fuzzy "if the" rule.

Chapter 4. Examples

Example/ Data

  • The data used in the following example was taken from an experiment in which xx was measured between x and x using a xx technique.
  • The data consists of over xx measurements.
  • An example of xx is discussed and the control rules of xx are compared with a xx
  • Examples of complex processes to which this technique may be applied are xx, xx, etc.
  • The following example is constructed only for the purpose of illustrating the computational procedure discussed.
  • This example clearly demonstrates that the profile of an individual xx, or a very small group of xx, with no enough data to be studied statistically, can be meaningfully analyzed by fuzzy possibilistic methods.
  • There is no space here to go into detail on all these methods, but deserve a mention and the bibliography will point to detailed references for those wishing this level of detail.
  • Note that the golf ball spotting example is used throughout the paper.

Comparisons

  • As well, the pros and cons of these representations from a process planning point of view will be discussed.
  • The method of using xx to implement xx described by Zadeh (1973) appeared more suitable
  • As discussed [in the previous section]/[preciously],

Relation

  • We can not invert F' directly because it defines a many-to-one mapping.
  • The relationships appear very complicate
  • Lifting tasks involve complex and imprecise relationship between the task variables and the human operator's characteristics.
  • These methods are based on the relationship between … and …
  • The fundamental concept of a fuzzy rating language is that we can establish a relationship among terms such as high, medium, and low, and then modify these relationships.
  • This article will thus mention the latter as well as the former.
  • The former two bear a close relation to a fuzzy Cartesian product.

Importance

  • The emphasis is on an implementation of a general approach to rule based decision making.

Consideration / Attention

  • Careful evaluation is necessary to ensure
  • Such a formulation does not change further considerations.
  • Considerable attention has been paid to
  • Attention should be paid to an important finding of this investigation.
  • Caution should be exercised in this process to avoid …
  • Primary consideration is given to … components, though others can be accommodated
  • After … has been defined by …, a carefully analysis is carried out/performed to determine
  • A number of factors such as …need to be taken into consideration before making the appropriate decision.
  • It should be noted that
  • It is important to point out that …
  • These considerations have heightened interest in the possibility of providing …
  • We should stress the fundamental importance of the xx

Chapter 5. Results.
Advantages / Disadvantage

  • One of the major advantages of this new measure of xx is that it can be applied to the experimental study of
  • One advantage of using a .. is the ease of preparing it.
  • The xx system is versatile
  • It has a very fast decision making process
  • All the algorithms involve mostly logical operations.
  • It can be easily and without additional cost implemented in a microprocessor based environment.
  • It can reduce the waste of designing from scratch.
  • The advantages of using a xx to represent xx are the following:
  • However, xx is not without its shortcomings.
  • In most cases, the xxx shows an improvement over the existing xxx.
  • Compared to the existing xx, the impacts of the xx are generally reduced by 5% to 9%.
  • The "best case" results shows a savings of 6% to 9%.
  • Most of the existing works based on xx approach can only recognize a xx .
  • Most of the above methods are computational expansive and limited to xx.
  • Some other advantages of xx are the following:
  • The problem is the limitation of this method to a limited domain of parts.
  • It proved limited in application because it demanded precision in system modeling that was impossible in practice.
  • There are advantages to be gained in the structuring of costs and benefits, the use of xx,
  • The disadvantages of this method are also disadvantages of conventional xx approaches.
  • This combines the best features of both techniques
  • Hopefully, this tool can be as the reference framework of for developing a xx platform, and helping the administration, marketing, and knowledge management activities in virtual communities.

Results

  • An improvement on the result shown above can be made by based on the data provided
  • Discussion of these theories is beyond the scope of this review
  • Based on the information contained in this
  • The result can be categorized into nine classes
  • The results are illustrated by an example
  • The experimental results for each xx time are reported in Table 2.
  • From the results obtained so far, it seem that
  • Because of the inaccuracy of the …, a conclusion cannot be drawn as
  • Although much effort has been made to., this reality is far from completion.
  • The results indicate that the total benefits are higher than the total costs.
  • Their results may then serve as guidelines for lower level models, less fuzzy and more detailed.

Chapter 6. Conclusion

  • From the discussion, one may conclude that …
  • Form the above discussion, the conclusion can be reached that
  • The conclusions drawn are also valid
  • In conclusion to this, it becomes obvious that the problem of xx lies not only in…
  • We have attempted to introduce some concepts associated with a theory of
    xx based on fuzzy sets.
  • Considerable more work, hopefully, will be done in this area
  • A fuzzy set procedure is proposed to solve xx selection problems interwoven with imprecise data
  • Employing the compositional rule of inference, the assessment of the xx compatibility in achieving prescribed xx projectiles in any level of the hierarchy is made possible.
  • This paper has presented a theoretical and experimental study of the xx process and xx concept.
  • The experimental research results will hopefully serve as useful feedback information for improvements for xx work.
  • The scope of this contribution was to introduce a xx method.
  • In general, fuzzy sets theory provides an alternative foundation for xx analysis in a fuzzy environment.

Future Research

  • Thus, first extension of the approach could be,
  • Present some cues for a further approach from Fuzzy Sets Theory application to
  • Some improvements to the scheduling aspect of the model may be brought through additional levels in the hierarchy for more detailed representation of the scheduling activity.

Tables and Figures

  • Figure 7-1 sketches these relationships.
  • The graphical representation of these functions is shown in Figure 1.
  • The xx may be depicted as in Figure 1.
  • Figure x shows the schematic diagram of the
  • Figure 1 though 2 provide a … that
  • the architecture of this expert system for …. is illustrated in Figure 2.
  • Figure 2 gives the outline of an … system
  • Table shows the
  • as shown in Table 1 and 2
  • This concept is illustrated in Figure 2
  • At the top of Table xx are shown two blocks of data.
  • Each table or matrix has constructs xx through xx as row headings,
    xx through xx as column headings.
  • A table of .. is developed and significant recommendations are made.

CONJUGATION

To Indicate Addition

  • additionally, again, also, and then, as can be easily understood, besides, equally important, especially, finally, for the same reason, first, further, furthermore, in addition, last, likewise, moreover, next, second, third, too, evidently, obviously, roughly speaking, broadly speaking

To Indicate Cause and Effect

  • accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, in short, otherwise, then, therefore, thus, truly

To indicate Comparison

  • in a like manner, likewise, similarly , alternatively

To Indicate Concession

  • after all, although this may be true, at the same time, even though, even so , I admit, naturally, of course

To Indicate Contrast

  • and yet, at the same time, but, for all that, however, yet, in fact, in contrast, in the real life, in spite of, nevertheless, notwithstanding, normally, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, traditionally, rather, unfortunately,

To Indicate Time Relationships

  • after a short time, afterwards, as indicated earlier, as long as, as soon as, at last, at length, at the moment, at that time, at the same time, before, earlier, currently, immediately, in the meantime, in recent years, lately, later, meanwhile, often, of late, presently, recently, soon, shortly, since, thereupon, temporarily, therefore, until, when, while

To Indicate Special Features or Examples

  • for example, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, in practice, specifically, that is, to illustrate, in this respect, theoretically, as mentioned before / above

To Indicate Summary

  • in brief, in conclusion, in short, in summary, on the whole, to conclude
    , in general, to summarize, to sum up, as a result, ultimately,

VERB PHASE

  • build a .. model
  • build up the key link
  • began a new era in …
  • can be regarded as / achieved / used to/for / found / obtained through
  • can result in
  • carries out … tasks
  • production information in order to simultaneously
  • contains all information necessary to describe
  • do not make use of production information
  • deals with
  • end with failure
  • fetch the information from the model directly
  • has great potential / yet to be resolved / spurred the development of /
    been recognized as
  • BE aimed at / built up / carried out by / essentially concerned with / considered to be the key technology / associated with each feature of a compo
    site component / cable of / currently implemented for / demonstrated by an example / finally reached / made equal to / equivalent to / more suitable to / oriented to / interpreted as / pointed out / potentially of great benefit in the complex task of / shown in / used to effectively guide the search
  • makes use of
  • make up
  • meets the needs of real life production,/ the current demands placed upon it
  • must be justified
  • point out
  • play an important role
  • relates to
  • rely on
  • satisfy the needs
  • determine the total requirements for the …
  • uses … as a key to search for…
  • without relying on
  • will be available/ performed/ overlooked

NOUN PHASE

  • a basic technical function of
  • a critical need
  • a key / principle feature of
  • a substantial impact on
  • an intensive review was conducted
  • an increasing need for expanding the application of ….
  • an important component / function / aspect / issue
  • each rule is numbered in sequence
  • each of these involves
  • for this calculation, it is necessary to define
  • in the physical environment / integration of
  • in the reality of situations where …
  • many aspects of
  • most past efforts have been spent on …
  • common sense to a well studied and documented technical field.
  • sources of additional information on … are listed
  • systematic and rationally structured format
  • the basis on which a range of …operations can be established is shown
  • THE basic philosophy / principles of / key element / general hypothesis / candidate list of / concept of … has attracted wide interest / function is concerned with / heart / impact / nature / role / task of / kernel functions
  • the number of parts needed to
  • the above statement means that
  • the output data is passed to
  • the proposed method / underlying principle
  • the recommendations made in this report, if implemented, should
  • this information resides in
  • this process is composed of … different … operation
  • along with the use of
  • concerning general aspects of
  • due to
  • for later use in generating…,
  • in turn,
  • IT IS believed / noted / assumed / suggested / shown / quite evident / appears / implies that / intended for / of no important to
  • it can be claimed/concluded that
  • it demonstrates the decisions required of
  • it also provides information to ..
  • it becomes essential to
  • let … be the probability that
  • once… is written, it is compiled into…
  • suppose it is observed that
  • this is because
  • this results in a
  • upon completion of the … analysis,
  • when the knowledge is of mathematics or quantum physics, it will also be
    recorded in books and papers
  • selection of rules for using the tools, for generating operation plans,
    is another matter of preference, since practice varies greatly.
  • for the sake of convenience
  • correct decision to be reach
  • keeping the number of rules to a minimum.
  • a good process plan will result exhibiting several characteristics
版权声明:站长 发表于 2021年5月29日 下午12:02。
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